Most Important Allyoing Elements

Steel is an alloy of Iron and Carbon and Most important alloying elements use in steel making process

Carbon Introduction and Reaction

  • Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.
  • Carbon is the principal hardening element in steel, and as carbon content increases the hardness increases. Tensile strength also increases with the carbon content up to about .85 per cent carbon. Ductility and weldability decrease with increasing carbon .

Manganese Introduction and Reaction

  • Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature.
  • Manganese contributes to strength and hardness, but to a lesser degree than carbon. The amount of increase in these properties is dependent upon the carbon content. i.e., higher carbon steels are affected more by manganese than lower carbon. Manganese tends to increase the rate of carbon penetration during carbonizing.

Phosphorus Introduction and Reaction

  • Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15
  • Phosphours in appreciable amounts increases strength and hardness, but at the sacrifice of ductility and impact toughness, particularly in higher carbon steels that are quenched and tempered.

Silicon Introduction and Reaction

  • Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard and brittle.
  • Silicon Is one of the principle deoxidizers used in steel making, and, therefore, the amount of silicon present is related to the type of steel. Silicon increases strength and hardness
Nickel
  • Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
  • Nickel provides such properties as improved toughness at low temperatures, good resistance to corrosion when used in conjunction with chromium in stainless grades, deep hardening, and ready response to conventional methods of heat-treating.
Chromium
  • Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24
  • Chromium exerts a toughening effect and increases hardenability, it also improves the surface resistance to abrasion and wear and is used extensively to increase the corrosion resistance of steel.
Vanadium
  • Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23
  • Vanadium is used to refine the grain size and enhance the mechanical properties of steel.
Sulfur
  • Sulfur (in British English, sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16.
  • Sulfur Increased sulfur content lowers transverse ductility and notched impact toughness, but has only a slight effect on longitudinal mechanical properties. Weldability decreases with increasing sulfur. Sulfur is added, however; to improve machinability.

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